Eesti Eesti  English English  Русский Русский  

About Chihuahua




This is the oldest breed on the American continent and the smallest breed in the world .The Chihuahua is named after the Mexican state of Chihuahua where he was brought to the rest of the world by travelers. This dog had its name after the American archeologist had found an image of a dog carved on the stone in the palace of Montezuma, the  Aztec ruler.


Who might be an ancestor  of Chihuahua?


Legend and history are rich in tales of the ancestors of the present Chihuahua .the Techichi,

Companion of the ancient  Toltecs,  is believed to be the progenitor of the Chihuahua. They distantly resembled ancestors of  pug-dogs from East-Asia-China. ,from these places  settlers directed to America across the Bering Strait.

Approximately  10-11 thousand years ago people reached  the south point of America and dogs are believed to come with them. But there is the theory that  they might have come this  way from America  to   Asia.

Besides, American  scientist  William Web  in a single dig  on the Indian hill   situated in the state  Kentucky, found  21 small dogs  interred in graves . Finding is dated 3000 year BC.

This fact   provides evidence  that dogs were domesticated in North America long before they could possibly have arrived on Chinese ships making port in   Maxico.

There  is  another theory that techichi might be ancestors of hairless  Mexican dog . But   this fact is denied because of anatomical  distinctions. The rectangular head shape of all hairless dogs is absolutely unlike the  rounded head of Chihuahua. Hairless-type dogs have long ,round, ,whippy tails whereas the Chihuahua  has  flattened ,stif, furry  tail. The long claw-like feet of the early Chihuahua are not seen in any other breed.


Aztec’s favorites


It is believed that the Toltec  reign gave way to the Aztecs who seem to have adopted the techichi who became their favorites. They  were known to other Indian tribes, as  komancha

Chochon .Dogs  were  used  not for edible interests  but for  religious ceremonies.

In 1519 after the victory of  conquistadors  under Kortes in Mexico  the Aztec  empire was defeated. Possibly, during the  battles  ancient dogs were killed too, their  bones were found in  the burial places .Mummies of dogs  are met  together with human’s burials . Their  pictures can be seen on the walls of temples and  tombs. The earliest evidence of  existence  of this dogs are  believed to be  pictures  of little dogs   carved in the stones  in the monastery Orotsingo  between Mexico and Pueblo.  A  pottery dog figures and carvings  were used for some mystic purpose in connection with temple or home  worship. Other account relate that dogs  were sacrificed in  the belief  that sins of the human would be transferred to the dog  ,  so that the human could gain safe passage to the other world  ,and this dog will follow the master  helping him overcome all difficulties of   hell’s darkness .

However ,  we  don’t have to identify ancient  dogs with  modern Chihuahua . According to the ancient   pictures , dogs in the past had elongated heads, unlike their modern dogs  with apple-shape head ,their muzzles were longer, but ears mostly very large.


About the purity of  the breed


Some dogs-lovers always tend to think that their  favourite  breed is the most ancient and puriest.

As for Chihuahua , some  impartial researchers are convinced  that formation of modern type of breed was under influence of other miniature breeds –toy-terriers miniature pinscher , spitz.

That is why in the nature there  are short-haired dogs  resembled  pinscher and long –haired like



The  official  history.


The first record  of  the Chihuahua, as  a   breed ,  occurred about  1884  when Mexicans began  selling these dogs to people  in  the  border  markets .

The American Kennel Club first registered the Chihuahua as a breed  in 1904. It was short-haired male-dog Midget  who entered the American Kennel Club stud book in 1904 along with three others   In 1915  this breed was voted in the USA. The Chihuahua Club of America was established in 1923 .At the beginning , short-haired dogs  were given preference,  but later  long-haired dogs  appeared. Until  1952 these two varieties were demonstrated  at the same level , but after 1952 year  this breed was split into two  varieties .The two are judged on the same standards ,the difference is that one variety is short-haired and the other is long –haired.

They are still interbred in the States, resulting in both coat varieties in the same litter .In 1954   in the USA  24  ,000  Chihuahua were  registered .By   1970   that number jumped to   25,000.


The  breed  began  to move into England  from the United States and directly from Mexico  in 1897 .  .In  1907  a Chihuahua was formally exhibited at Ladies Kennel Club Show.

Then   registration  privileges followed. On the Kraft  show  in 1937 a Chihuahua was exhibited for the first time ./ 7 dogs  and three of them –from America/ All participants were short-haired variety of this breed.

By 1949,  there  remained only eight registered dogs, and there was  no pre-war  breeding left in England. By1953, the number  of  registered  Chihuahua  was 111. Again a Chihuahua appeared on the Kraft Show only in 1951.

This breed began to move to Europe   supposedly in 1950s.-in Germany and France.

Nowadays,   this  breed is spread all over the world but in Mexico ,The USA ,Canada and England

The Chihuahua   is  consider  to be their dearly-beloved  national breed  .And the dearest guests are given these  little dogs as a present.

Tallinn, Estonia
E-mail: marina@chihua.ee